How does a drone work in a video shoot?

By Alvin Motilla

How does a drone work in simple terms?

What is a drone in the first place? What can it do? How do we gain from using drones in our video making efforts? And are there laws and regulations we need to consider, when flying a drone?

Let's learn about these and more, about this video production tool called, the drone.

how do drones workHow does a drone work in shooting videos?

Contents


What is a drone
Who invented the drone
History of drones timeline
What does a UAV do
Advantages of drones
How does a drone work
Frequently Asked Questions
Conclusion

But before we answer, "How does a drone work?", let's get to know first what a drone is.


What is a drone?


A drone is an aircraft that you can…

  • remotely control, or
  • launch so that it flies autonomously—meaning, without you always controlling it.

You may view it as a robot that can fly, without a human pilot on board.

The formal term for the drone is, “unmanned aerial vehicle” (or, UAV).

The only reason, this intelligent machine can fly autonomously is this—a human on the ground has programmed flight plans, in the drone's system. So, it is still... Humans over machines.

Moreover, drones have a long relationship with the military. But drones have also found their way, and usefulness to civilians.

This unmanned aerial vehicle is both complex and simple.

"Complex"... because a drone is the result of putting together very technical things—including computer, artificial intelligence, physics, camera, etc.

"Simple"... because a civilian—or, an everyday person—who uses a drone, finds that its user interface is relatively plain. It feels like you’re just using a video game controller. Not manipulating a jet plane's control panel.

A hobbyist commonly uses a drone called, "the quadcopter".

What is a quadcopter?

We often see those little flying drones with four propellers. Those are called quadcopters, basically like helicopters with four rotors instead of just one. That's why you might also hear them called "quadrotors" for short.

what is a quadcopterHow does a drone work--particularly the quadcopter, which is accessible to everyday people? Keep on reading...

It is a form of drone, or UAV, that is popular among ordinary people who love to shoot videos from above.

Why is it called a drone?

You might be surprised, but 'drone' used to have a different meaning.

“Drone” originally meant a male honeybee

  • That doesn’t have a sting.
  • That doesn’t work to get pollen or nectar.
  • That only mates with the queen bee.

“Drone” also meant a monotonous buzzing, or humming sound. Just like what you can hear from the bees.

The British used a radio-controlled aircraft, called “Queen Bee”, sometime in 1935. It's an unpiloted flying machine, used as object for target practice.

Somehow, the name “Queen Bee” led to the use of “drone” to also mean…

an aircraft without a pilot on board.

And think about it...

A typical drone we fly nowadays, really sound like the buzzing of a bee—or “drone”. This may have stimulated people to give “drone” a different meaning.

Today, people say “drone” and “unmanned aerial vehicle”. And they mean the same thing. 

Most folks you hear using "drone" though, they're probably talking about those cool quadcopters hobbyists love to fly.

But, when we hear “UAV” or “unmanned aerial vehicle”, we sense some formality in the term. It feels like, “UAV” is more associated with drones used by government.

Also, some say DRONE is an acronym—which stands for “Dynamic Remotely Operated Navigation Equipment”.


Who invented the drone?


Have you heard of Abraham Karem? This aerospace engineer is basically the godfather of drones!

Born in Baghdad in 1937, he grew up in Israel after his family moved there in 1951. There, he graduated from Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, as an aeronautical engineer.

Abraham relocated to US, in the 70s, where he built “Albatross”—his first drone.

His undying love for aeronautics, enabled him to make a better drone called, “Amber”.

Later on, “Amber” became Abraham’s basis for developing the “Predator” drone.

Know that the early forms of drone Abraham made, were not yet quadcopters. Instead, they were drones having fixed wings—like the “Predator” drone.

who invented drones - particularly, the predator drone

So, you may ask, Who invented the quadcopter drone specifically?

Who invented quadcopter drone?

what does a drone look like from the ground

To answer that, consider that there those who are trying to constantly improve, and evolve this unmanned aerial vehicle. So, there are several sources of drones.

And it’s hard to say, who the real inventor of the quadcopter drone is. But our takeaway is this...

Technology progresses, because humans have the insatiable hunger to create or invent.

Machines that we know today—like quadcopter drones—are likely to get even better, and more sophisticated in the future.

When was drone invented?

Inventor Abraham Karem is most known for the “Predator” drone. It’s because this UAV carried weapons. It’s a warfare drone.

He and the United States, produced the “Predator”, in 1996.

However, some say that the first UAV existed earlier than 1996. And that's the “Queen Bee”—which others consider to be the first modern drone. It appeared in 1935.

Now, notice that we’ve been talking about military drones. But how about drones that civilians and ordinary people use?


History of drones timeline - key milestones related to the use of drones by civilians and everyday people


Well, there are few important milestones in history, regarding drones for civilian and consumer use…

- In 2006, US Government permitted the use of drones, to help in rescue and relief operations.

Drones with thermal cameras aided in search operations—by reading the heat signatures of people from afar, who needed to be rescued.

Also, many companies were developing drones, to better suit the needs of consumers and businesses, near this period of time.

- In 2010, smartphones gained the capacity to control drones.

Parrot—a French drone maker—released the small quadcopter drone for the consumer. You just needed an app on your smartphone, to fly that thing.

- In 2013, consumers became strongly interested in drones, with built-in cameras.

It's when DJI company brought out their Phantom drone series. Many video enthusiasts, then, set out to fly their drones, to capture aerial shots.


What does a drone do?


How are drones useful in real life? What are they capable of?

Or what are drones capable of?

  • A drone can fly at different distances.
  • Drones can sense their surroundings and calculate how they'll move in space.
  • Drones can reach locations accurately.
  • Drones can capture high resolution videos, and very detailed images—giving you beautiful and amazing perspectives from above.
  • Drones can help humans do things more efficiently, and safely.

Now, let's discuss them one by one...

1. A drone can fly at different distances.

Even a hobby drone can go as far as 3 miles away, from the person who controls it.

But, a more advanced drone can travel beyond that. It can hover so high above the land, that people underneath that drone couldn't easily notice it.

2. Drones can sense their surroundings, and calculate how they'll move in space.

Therefore, they can avoid obstacles.

To do that, drones use some obstacle avoidance technology. They use sensors and detectors, that enable them to pass through tight spaces... safely.

3. Drones can reach locations accurately.

They’re able to do that, with the help of Global Positioning System—or, GPS—and the programmed flights, set by the drone operator.

4. Drones can capture high resolution videos, and very detailed images—giving you beautiful and amazing perspectives from above.

Depending on a drone’s model, it can shoot high definition—or, HD—videos, like 1080p. Other models can shoot ultra high definition—or, UHD—videos, like 4K.

More advanced UAVs even use infrared, that’s useful for shooting at night, and for detecting heat that humans and objects give off.

5. Drones can help humans do things more efficiently, and safely.

Because of drone’s capabilities—which become better and more powerful, as technology progresses—humans have found excellent uses of drones.

Don't think drones are just for fancy military stuff anymore. They've become really popular for fun stuff too, like taking amazing videos and photos for vacations or even making movies.

Drones help even in surveillance, rescue, and giving public service announcements—for instance, during pandemic.


Advantages of drones - especially in video production


Here are some key benefits of using drones in shooting videos...

  • Engaging.
  • Low-cost.
  • Easy and efficient to use.
  • Versatile.
  • Practical in many ways.

Now, let's discuss these advantages one by one...

why drone is importantHow does a drone work, when you're taking aerial shots of your subject?

Engaging.

Using a drone, and viewing the output of using it, are both engaging.

As humans, we love to see how birds see the world, from high above. We want to experience that unique viewpoint.

Shooting a drone video is engaging. That feel of piloting an aircraft in space, while you're standing on the ground, is unique. You get to see things, you don’t normally see in your everyday life.

And the resulting video is compelling to watch. Drone footage—like aerial shots of happenings on the ground—can really engage you and your audience.

Low-cost.

Shooting videos using a drone is very cheap, compared to renting a helicopter to film aerial shots.

Big film studios can afford costly helicopter, or airplane shots.

But for indie film makers, amateurs, and beginners, that highly sought-after aerial video, is more doable with a drone. It's a low-cost solution to recording aerial shots.

Easy and efficient to use.

A drone may be an advanced tool. But an everyday person can still find it easy to learn to operate. In fact, more and more civilians are owning and using drones, for video making.

One motivation to learn how to fly a drone, is the efficiency it brings. It does the job in less time, with lesser effort. How easy it is, to get an establishing shot with a drone?

Versatile.

  • A drone is more versatile in navigating space, than a helicopter and other manned aircraft. Therefore, it's more helpful in videography.
  • A drone is small enough to move through a tight space, while recording video.

A drone can fly so low, just above the ground. So you can get that fascinating, low-angle tracking shot.

Practical in many ways.

The drone has applications in military, non-military, and creative fields. Here's some examples…

1. Military-related use: war coverage

We’re not going to talk about drones for warfare—those that carry weapons, like missiles.

We’re just talking about using drones, to record videos of war happenings—that is, war reporting. With drones, journalists can safely cover a war, without risking their own lives, just to get close to the action.

2. Non-military use: filmmaking

Some filmmakers use drones, as tools for expressing their visions. Drones enable them to show their viewers, alternative viewpoints of this world.

3. Non-military use: journalism

“Drone journalism” now exists.

Drones can provide aerial footage for news agencies, and TV programs. A sample footage is a live video feed from a drone, covering the traffic situation in an area.

4. Non-military use: aerial photography

You can also use a drone to take aerial photographs. And you may want to use those photographs, in two ways…

  • as stand-alone photographs—This is your collection of creative photos.
  • as still images you'll incorporate into your video—This is part of your multimedia approach to creating audio-visual presentations.

5. Fun, clever use: drone video selfie

Who doesn’t know what a selfie is? ;-)

With a drone, you can get video selfies—alone, or with family and friends.

One obvious difference is you’re not going to use a selfie stick. Instead, you'll use the joysticks of your drone’s remote controller.


How does a drone work in a video shoot?


drone cameraHow does a drone work in a video shoot? The way it works involves 3 key things...

If we are to study how a drone works in a video shoot, it will involve 3 things…

  1. the drone’s capacity to fly,
  2. the drone’s capacity to stabilize your shots, and
  3. the drone’s capacity to shoot videos and images.

First, let’s talk about the drone’s capacity to fly

1. How does a drone work - the drone’s capacity to fly

A drone can fly because of…

  • the physical parts that make up the drone itself, and
  • the drone’s control system and navigation.

A drone is usually made of light materials, so it can easily cruise. Its propellers lift it from the ground.

The common drone that we know moves vertically—meaning,...

  • it can take off vertically, and
  • it can land vertically.

Unlike a toy remote control car, drones need a more advanced system to stay balanced and fly where you want them to. That's where the control system and navigation come in.

And speaking of control, since you'll be the pilot on the ground, you'll have a cool remote control to steer your drone around. That controller normally uses a smartphone, to wirelessly connect to the drone that you operate.

But the drone is not a merely remote-controlled machine. Remember, it has some degree of autonomy. You don’t have to manually control it all the time.

You can also set a flight route for your drone, so that when it flies, it stabilizes itself. It can do that because it's equipped with GPS technology.

Next, let’s move on to the drone’s capacity to stabilize your shots

2. How does a drone work - the drone’s capacity to stabilize your shots

The drone has its own gimbal. The drone gimbal is the camera stabilizer of the drone. It is what enables the drone to give you stable shots, even though the drone is flying.

So, how does a drone gimbal work?

The drone gimbal cancels any vibrations, just like the handheld gimbal. The result is the camera records motion, that's smooth and pleasing to the eyes.

Try watching a drone footage. Especially the part where…

  • the drone takes off,
  • travels first near the ground, then
  • slowly reaches higher altitudes.

You get the effect that you’re watching a steadicam shot. And then, it feels like the steadicam operator is also floating through space.

A drone gimbal has a part that holds the camera. It also has sensors and motors that keep the camera stable, resulting in smooth shots.

Have you heard about the 3-axis gimbal?

That’s the kind of gimbal that the common drone has. A drone gimbal has 3 motors—very essential for taking professional-looking aerial videos, and photos.

You wish to own a drone? Choose a drone with built-in gimbal and camera.

Why?

Because your video creation life will be easier. The parts of such a drone are already matched with each other. The drone will just fly, shoot videos, and stabilize your shots optimally, as you operate the drone.

Now, let’s talk about the drone’s capacity to shoot videos and images

3. How does a drone work - the drone’s capacity to shoot videos and images

A quadcopter—or the drone that has 4 rotors—has an integrated camera located at the drone's center.

So, how does drone camera work?

In a nutshell, this camera works, when the drone receives signal from the remote control you're operating. You can tell the camera to record videos and take photos. You can also adjust the drone camera settings, using the remote control.

how does drone camera workA drone's remote control.


Here's some key details of what’s happening…

  • The remote control has two joysticks, like those you see on a video game controller. You communicate with the drone, and its camera, using those joysticks.

  • A recreational drone may use WiFi for that communication. But, a more professional drone may use other frequencies, which are stronger in signal and more reliable.

  • You see what the drone camera sees, from the smartphone attached to the remote control. This is because the drone transmits its camera's “live” 1st person view, to the device you’re holding.

  • When you see the video live feed, you feel like you’re riding the drone, though you’re really not. You’re just standing on the ground.

  • You can adjust camera exposure, zoom, and other features—depending on how advanced the drone you’re flying.

  • To shoot videos or pictures, you simply push the designated button on the remote control.

  • The drone’s motherboard receives your signal, and tells the drone camera to capture your desired image—motion or still.

--

Finally, let's put these things altogether: how drones achieve flight, what their basic components are, and how complex they are to operate.

Drones and their mechanics

How does a drone work diagramHow does a drone work on a fundamental level?

Imagine a tiny helicopter controlled by a video game controller. Yes, that's basically a drone in a nutshell!

Helicopters have that one big whopper of a blade, right? Drones are different. They use smaller propellers to zip around. Let's see how the basic components work together to make a drone fly!

Propellers:

How do drones fly and move?

They spin really fast, pushing air downwards, and lifting the drone.

According to a study by Dynotis, since the drone's propeller acts like a wing, "higher blade pitch angle" forces more air down, creating lift.

Motors:

What makes a drone fly in the air?

Think of these as the engines of the drone. The battery powers the motors, which spin the propellers.

Flight Controller:

What is the principle of drones working?

Think of it as the drone's brain -- the central command center.

When you fly a drone, the remote control sends signals to the flight controller.

And guess what? This "brain" has eyes and ears -- its sensors.

These sensors are gyroscopes and accelerometers. They help the flight controller become aware where the drone is, and how it's positioned in space.

Now, here's the fun part...

The flight controller takes all this information and makes split-second decisions. Think of it like a conductor for a drone orchestra! It makes sure all the motors work -- or play ;-) -- in harmony, so the drone can fly smoothly.

So, when you tell your drone to pull off a cool flip or just chill and hover, it’s the flight controller taking care of that. It’s like having a tiny autopilot on board!

Controlling a drone

How do drones communicate?How does a drone work? The way it works isn't magic.

Hey! Don't be fooled by those fancy drone videos, flying them isn't magic. It's all about different parts working together seamlessly. Basically, your controller talks to the drone's brain -- the flight controller. Which then tells the motors what to do to move up, down, and all around. Let's break down the controls in a way that's easy to understand.

  • Throttle: Controls the overall altitude of the drone. Increase the throttle for a higher ascent and decrease it to descend.

  • Pitch and Roll: Imagine tilting a joystick on your controller. The drone is like your head -- tilting it forward, like you're nodding, makes it fly forwards. And tilting it sideways, like you're tilting your head, is how it moves left and right.

  • Yaw: It's like the steering wheel of a car. It lets you spin the drone left or right.

Understand these controls. Know how a drone responds. And you'll be ready to snag some incredible aerial shots!

Important note: You know how learning anything new takes time. Right? Well, flying a drone is no different. And be sure to follow the safety rules -- better safe than sorry!

A fellow videographer flew his drone in a place where he didn't bother to check for the restrictions to flying drones. It was a paid video shoot.

As he was flying his drone, he suddenly couldn't control it anymore. He felt he lost communication with his drone, and it fell straight to the ground and broke into pieces. He suspected that there was some sort of signal jammer in the area where he flew his beloved drone.

The lesson? Always fly in open areas away from people and obstacles, and be aware of airspace regulations in your area.


Frequently Asked Questions - How does a drone work


Do drones require license?

It depends on where you are. Are you thinking about flying one in your country?

Check out the directory of drone laws and regulations in different countries, plus in different states in US.

First, it is important to know why a drone license is necessary.

Basically, it is for safety of the airspace.

Okay, let’s take United States as an example…

The US has Federal Aviation Administration—or, FAA.

Let's say you're in the US and want to use your drone for work, like making some extra cash with aerial photography or inspections. The FAA, basically the air traffic control for the US, says you gotta get a license for that.

This license is called a Part 107 certificate, kind of like a commercial drone pilot's license. If you fly your drone for business without one, well, that's illegal. And let me tell you, the fines can sting!

However, if you just want to fly your drone for “fun” or recreation, the FAA lets you do that. Even if you don’t have a drone license.

But, there are 3 things the FAA tells you to do…

  1. Register your drone with them.
  2. Put the registration number on the body of your drone, clear enough to be seen.
  3. Bring with you your proof of registration with the FAA, every time you operate your drone.

But beware…

The FAA doesn’t allow you to use your recreational drone’s footage—or photos—to advertise, or promote a business. Even if you don’t get directly paid.

And remember also that in the US, both…

  • commercial, and
  • recreational

… drones, need to be registered with the FAA.

Is it illegal to use a drone?

It depends. Where are you in the world?

Here’s another resource—a way for you to visually check the legality of using drones, in different countries.

Note also, there are 2 types of drone laws you need to know, depending on what you want to do with your drone…

  1. recreational drone laws
  2. commercial drone laws

Let’s use US again as an example…

In the US, it's legal to fly a drone. But, you need to comply with the regulations.

Also, there are specific activities that you cannot use your drone for…

For example, you can’t use your drone for hunting wildlife. That’s illegal in 45 out of 50 states in the US.

In addition, even disturbing wildlife by flying your drone, is not permitted by the FAA… especially at national parks.

Of course, don't be that pilot who gets in the way of airplanes and helicopters! Those guys have enough to worry about already. Imagine people's safety inside those aerial vehicles.


Key takeaways for "How does a drone work in a video shoot?"


So, you just read about how awesome drone videography can be. Let's break it down into the cool stuff:

  • Wow your friends with mind-blowing views! Ever wished you could get that perfect picture of a mountain range, or show off a cool building from a crazy angle? Regular cameras can't get that far, but drones can - they're like having your own personal flying cameraman!

  • Hollywood on a budget: Forget expensive helicopters! Forget fancy cameras! Drones can level up your videos to look amazing, all without costing a fortune!

  • Forget what you think about drones being hard to fly. These things are getting super user-friendly. Even as a beginner, with a little practice, you can be capturing stunning footage that'll make you look like a pro!

  • Drones are like little flying film crews! Drones can fly practically anywhere. Weave through narrow gaps, skim the ground for cool low-angle shots, or climb super high for epic views. They open up a whole world of cool possibilities for your videos.

One quick thing before you get started - there are a few important points to consider.

  • Safety first! Fly in open areas, stay away from people and objects, and always check airspace regulations.

  • Do you need a license? Rules for drones vary depending on where you live. Check before you fly!

  • Heads up about drone laws! There might be rules about where you can fly one, especially if you're using it for work or buzzing any animals.

Safe flying and awesome drone videos? These tips got you covered.

Now, the fun part! What kind of video can you imagine using drone footage in?

Check out this topic related to drones...